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When The Heat Is On, Which Oil Should You Use?

If you fried floor-dredged foods, at the bottom of the deep fryer, you would find a large amount of flour. Don’t pour them into the pot or container; discard them separately. Ensure proper tightening or covering of the pot so that dust or dirt can’t fall into it and let the oil cool. Every oil type doesn’t contain the same level of saturated and unsaturated fats.

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Even better, the food is already cooked, so it doesn’t need to enter the process of cooking through your food. Your oil temperature should stay higher as well, preventing oil from entering the food and creating a soggy mess. This isn’t the healthiest alternative to deep frying here, but it does help eliminate some of the oil.

High-oleic canola oil contains more monounsaturated and less polyunsaturated fats. Canola oil is pressed from the seeds of the rapeseed plant and is also called rapeseed oil. Being an oil that remains stable at high heat, canola oil is good in a deep fryer. Also, canola oil is a kind of oil with neutral taste, which makes it a popular type of vegetable oil for cooking. Oil from the safflower plant is high in polyunsaturated fat, a healthier fat.

What Is Phosphatidylcholine? Benefits, Uses, Forms & Side Effects

Recent studies have shown that extra virgin olive oil is safe to use for cooking. Researchers carried out a number of experiments monitoring extra virgin olive oil as it cooked at 120C and on a pan for different lengths of time. They found that temperature, but not time, had some effect on the polyphenol content in the oil. One observational study associated replacing saturated fat with olive oil, for example, with a lower risk of heart disease. Substituting butter, margarine, mayonnaise or dairy fat with olive oil reduced the risk by 5 to 7%.

One time, the pot caught fire when the fries were added and the oil started spitting. I put the lid on and no damage was done, but after this I switched to electric deep fryers. I found the highest wattage fryers were best; no surprise there.

It beats out Vegetable oil as the best choice for convince because vegetable may be derived from a large number of plants, making it a bit more unpredictable in its properties. Many preferred oils offer a neutral taste, which is something that shouldn’t change the taste of your food either way. However, some oils offer slight variances in a food’s bitterness or sweetness. These slight variations could be a good or bad thing depending on the food. Because of that, you’ll mostly find neutral tasting oils as recommendations.

This uses the entire potato with no waste, and all slices are the same size, which ensures even cooking. The french fry cutter would leave smaller pieces from near the potato’s surface, which I used to fry separately from the big center pieces. Also, use a light dusting of popcorn salt on the chips rather than regular salt. Rather than use the tiny 3¾ ounce shaker, buy the one pound box and pour it into a Cambro shaker with a green or beige lid. The superfine is REALLY fine and hardly anything comes out even with vigorous shaking, so I use the beige lid and shake carefully. I bought fat from local butcher shops and kettle rendered it.

There are two plausible reasons for you to be on this page. The first is you don’t have a deep fryer yet love deep fried food. The second may be that you find deep frying too unhealthy.

Other Choices For Deep Frying

The concerns here are not health-related, but rather environmental. Cod fish liver oil contains a significant dose of vitamin D3. A lot of people do not get nearly enough of this key nutrient. These fats have fewer polyunsaturated fats than those which come from grain-fed livestock. So in some cases, lard and other animal fats are excellent choices for cooking, but in other cases, they should be avoided.

What’s The Healthiest Frying And Cooking Oil?

Choose an oil that is low in trans-fats and other toxic fatty acids and high in saturated and mono-unsaturated. The food items are cut into small pieces and are fried in a very small amount of fat followed by constant stirring. The temperature is kept very high and the frying is done for only a few minutes. For this, consider what does cbd oil feel like reddit that suddenly dropping an extremely cold item into burning-hot oil will considerably reduce the oil’s temperature. The resulting effect will depend on the type of frying equipment being used. The recommended frying time for fish will depend on the equipment being used and the size of the fish pieces being fried.

This oil is versatile and suitable for all kinds of food preparation. This oil is an excellent alternative for lovers of salads. There is also a salad chopper, with which you will make an excellent dish. High-purity oil retains all the useful properties of the food without giving it its own aroma. This oil will help you to get hotter without smoking, producing crispier, lighter, tastier turkey. The Electric Grill is the most authentic product of our time.

Moreover, restaurants often reuse these oils, making it even worse. Repeated frying changes the composition of the oil and causes more oil to be absorbed into the food. This further increases your chances of having high cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Gourmet peanut oils usually contain high levels of vitamin E and phytosterols. You can reuse peanut oil several times within the six month storage period, but sterilize it before each additional use by allowing it to reach 350 degrees F before adding any food. Removing canola oil and other processed vegetable oils from your diet is easy and well worth it. There are all sorts of great oil choices available that offer health benefits instead of health risks. Trans fats are “bad” fats that increase risk of heart disease. At high temperatures, some of the fats in oil change into trans fats.

Our Guide On How To Reuse Fry Oil, And Prolong Its Life

If you do need to deep fry, corn and sunflower oils are unstable at high temperatures. ‘Cold-pressing’ is when the oil is extracted without any heat and is used to produce oils like extra virgin olive oil and avocado oil. ‘Hot-pressing’ is similar but the oil is extracted with heat and pressure. These processing techniques result in a less-processed oil which is higher in antioxidants with most of the flavour and colour retained.

How To Substitute Coconut Oil For Vegetable Oil

May be difficult to find a trustworthy and budget-friendly brand that produces fresh extra virgin oil. Serves as the perfect keto salad dressing oil and adds an extra boost of flavor to keto recipes. Used in kitchens for centuries, lard has a unique mix of different types of fats. In the past, it was what cooks used when they needed to make pastries; when dinner needed cooking; and even as a quick breakfast… eaten spread on a piece of bread!

Olive oil is a great go-to oil for most shallow-frying needs. It has a lower smoke point than some of the other oils (around 375˚F) so it’s better suited for things like sautéing vegetables or pan-frying thin cuts of meat. Keep in mind that it’s not neutral-tasting—it will add some flavor to your dishes.

Sunflower oil is best when using a deep fryerand will result in crispy chips and batter, which means it’s ideal for your ActiFry as well. There is a lot of confusion about what cooking oils are best to use so I’ve created a Healthy Cooking Oils Chart below. It will help you decide the best healthy cooking oil for you depending upon what you are cooking.

Meanwhile, if you want to give yourself a treat from time to time, you can lessen the guilt by choosing the best cooking oil that can help keep the food healthy. Grapeseed oil is low in saturated fat and high in polyunsaturated fat, which scientists believe can also help raise HDL levels. That is a type of essential fatty acid which, like the omega-3 fatty acids found in salmon, can’t be manufactured by our bodies and must be obtained from food. Peanut oil is one of the more flavorful oils out there, with a nice nutty scent and taste.

Fats are a major source of energy and are essential for normal growth. They are a vital component of the cell membrane, essential for blood clotting, muscle movement and metabolism improving. Without fats, food is less filling, and we tend to overeat to get the same feeling of satiety.

Most oils you find on supermarket shelves are refined, although many are also available unrefined, albeit often expensive. Whenever possible, choose oils with high smoke points in their most natural form, such virgin, unrefined or cold-pressed versions. When deep-frying, it’s important to choose an oil with a high smoke point. According to the Canola Council, frying requires maintaining the oil temperature at 365 to 375 F. Due to its high smoke point of 230 °c and neutral flavor it is a preferred essential oil for deep-frying.

It is through the refining process that sunflower oil is stabilized to enable it to withstand high temperatures. However, in its refined form, sunflower oil could be lacking some of its natural nutrients. While deep-frying is considered not to be very healthy, it is a cooking method has been used traditionally all over the world.

This palm oil is produced in a way that aims to reverse the damage done by palm oil plantations while maximizing the quality of the oil. As long as you buy the right product, palm oil can be a great addition to the keto diet. Since it is often produced in a way that devastates the rainforest and its wildlife, we must pay close attention to what palm oil we consume. Can be used as a replacement for avocado oil or olive oil. In contrast, regular sunflower and safflower oils should be avoided because they are filled with delicate fatty acids that oxidize quickly and increase inflammation.

When cooked at low-to-medium heat, butter can provide a satisfying flavor and creamy quality to the meal that no oil or fat can mimic. However, if you let the pan get too hot, the proteins and milk sugars in the butter can start to burn. Refined coconut oil — The refined variety of coconut oil can be used as a high-heat cooking oil, the base for keto fat bombs, and as the primary fat in both sweet and savory keto recipes.

Don’t over fill the fry basket or the food will cook unevenly. Overheating oil is a quick and easy way to get it to break down into unusable form. Start by using a skimmer to skim off any floaters and large pieces of debris that might be lurking in the pot and discard them. Next, pour the oil through a fine mesh strainer into a clean, dry pot. If you were cooking flour-dredged foods, you may find a large layer of dirty, flour-filled oil at the bottom of the pot.

What Oil Do Chinese Restaurants Use For Deep

Very often, deep frying is used to prepare food in a communal restaurant. Oils with relatively high smoke points include coconut oil, peanut oil, and sunflower oil. The oils with the highest polyunsaturated fats are sunflower and safflower oil, both of which have smoke points in the range of 450 to 500 F for their refined versions.

Why Fermented Foods Are Amazing For Gut Health +recipe

Instead, use metal tongs or metal slotted spoons to flip the food and cook it nicely. You can even use a try using a thermometer initially to get an idea of how long you should be heating up the oil in the pan. While pan-frying, maintain a temperature of up to 325 F for uniform cooking. When you’re pan-frying any food, you will notice some food debris or batter coating swimming on the surface. If you cook it long enough, it will char and produce harmful by-products. Be mindful of the size of your pan as wider cookware will require that you distribute the oil evenly.

A Ugandan speciality is a kind of doughnut called Mandazi. In areas of Southern Africa, street foods include deep-fried potato and cassava chips. Deep-fried foods in the country of South Africa include fish and chips, vetkoek and koeksisters, among others.

It also has less saturated fats than all other common cooking oils You can use it in all forms of cooking, including deep fat frying and it won’t flavour your food. The best oil to use for deep frying is the one that has only saturated bonds. Not only can you fry with extra virgin olive oil, but you should. It stands up well to heat due to its monounsaturated fatty acid and polyphenol content and is a safer, healthier, and tastier choice compared to other oils.

It shouldn’t be the primary source of fat in your diet, and you should aim to balance it out with other types of healthy fats. Potential benefits of grapeseed oil include moisturizing skin and hair, and helping to lower high cholesterol. In order to extract the oil from the tiny grape seeds, heavy machinery and sometimes chemicals need to be used. Some modern industrial machines used to make grapeseed oil heat the oil to very high temperatures, which is the opposite of what we want, since this can destroy the oil. After wine is made, by pressing the juice from grapes and leaving the seeds behind, oils are extracted from the crushed seeds. It might seem odd that oil is held within the seed of a fruit, but in fact, a small amount of some type of fat is found inside just about every seed, even seeds of fruits and vegetables.

The fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids in cooking oils show comparatively reasonable stability when they are used for shallow frying rather than deep frying. A good brand is Native Harvest, they have a premium blend of olive oil and canola oil for deep frying fish. Some oils you might want to consider using for deep frying include extra-virgin olive oil, canola oil, avocado oil, and olive oil. These are, by far, some of the healthiest alternatives to the usual deep frying oils. In Western diets, more omega 6 is generally consumed than omega 3. Therefore it’s useful to have a wide variety of oils, rich in both these essential fats to choose from.

Always change the oil when it has developed a strong smell or taste. The olive oil is considered to be the most beneficial oil in the world. It also lacks trans-fats which is a good thing since trans-fats are harmful to health. But we should also keep this in mind that the amount and kind of fats present in an animal depend on its diet.

Find out the facts here so when your shoppers ask, your staff knows how to respond. I would really like you to know that cooking at home is not at all difficult and not burdensome, and homemade food is not only healthy, but also delicious. While EVOO is fairly stable to heat in terms of its fat composition, it is quite unstable to heat in terms of its phenol cbd oil ibs and polyphenol composition. Recent studies show that phenols and polyphenols in EVOO—for example, hydroxytyrosol or luteolin —are not stable to heat and degrade relatively quickly. “If I had a choice,” he says, “between lard and polyunsaturates, I’d use lard every time.” Choosing the right oil to cook with is a complicated business, writes Michael Mosley.

The fact is, Light/Virgin Olive Oil has a smoke point of 400°F, making it perfect for high heat cooking. Olive oil is primarily monounsaturated fat, making it a good choice for an oil that won’t break down when subjected to heat. In fact, studies have shown that it can be heated for up to 24 hours straight before it starts to break down. The smoke point of extra virgin olive oil is 375°F (191°C). Therefore, this isn’t the best oil for pan frying or deep frying at high temperatures.

Coconut oil is one of the healthiest oils for deep frying. According to experts, the quality of the coconut oil remains less affected even after 8 hours of continuous deep frying at 365 F . In addition, over 90% of the fatty acids in coconut oil are saturated, which makes it resistant to heat. The process of kratom krazy frying can alter the quality and increase the food’s caloric content. Most fast-food restaurants use hydrogenated oils, which are high in trans fats, to fry foods because they enhance the taste. Trans fats can increase bad cholesterol levels, lower good cholesterol levels, and up the risk of heart disease.

Why Publishing Blog Posts On Time Is So Hard

Every company person knows the fact a fruitful company depends considerably on the existence of an audio advertising strategy. In the absence of this type of strategy, all of your other initiatives are essentially useless. This really is all the more true when it comes to online organizations, as your competition is fiercer on the Internet. We could get as far as expressing that your Web company will quickly arrive at an end if you crash to produce great use of all assets that you’ve at your disposal when it comes to generating quality traffic to your online site.

Your advertising strategy ought to be a complex one and includes a variety of search engine optimization services, such for instance article distribution, directory submissions, cultural bookmarking, and website posting. These are some of the top ways to promote a web page and the expense of such seo services are nothing set alongside the advantages they bring. Only consider what advantages would derive from having thousands as well as thousands of prospective customers visiting your website every day and you’ll certainly concur that search engine optimization services are an investment worth making. Guest post

An SEO post is one of the most effective ways of generating long-haul traffic, particularly if applicable material is submitted on private blogs. Needless to say that your freshly produced website is likely to be found by key search motors faster than it would be if you had been to only wait for that to take place without resorting to any advertising strategies. Moreover, a seo post will also support improve your position with the most important search motors, which, will change into more targeted traffic to your online site.

Once you’ve handled to have continuous quality traffic to your website, you decide to help keep your guests finding their way back, but more regularly than perhaps not, getting to the stage where you’ve to show unexpected customers into devoted types is probably the most difficult task. And this really is where each one of these seo strategies, including website submitting, comes into place. However, a seo post is not a thing that everybody can do. Wherever you post your article is of the utmost value and therefore is the caliber of the text and its relevance for search engines. Along with all this, website submitting can be a really time-consuming task. Therefore, it’s recommended that you make use of a professional website submitting service.

A professional website submitting support could be the surest method to take advantage of all of the advantages that derive from applying all of the advertising possibilities that the Web provides. SEO specialists can create articles that can be abundant with applicable keywords and post them manually on tens or a huge selection of private quality blogs. Quite simply, an excellent website submitting support can help raise your rank with key search motors and create targeted traffic to your online site.

A seo post is really a cheap, yet equally effective alternative to an expensive advertising campaign. It can be a really powerful advertising software, offered it’s employed by skilled seo specialists. Important material and submitting on well-ranked websites is something that only a professional website submitting support can provide.

Boulder Vape Pens

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You also have a chance to enjoy your liquid vapes as the model delivers reliable and remarkable performance. A stylish design tends to make the model stand out among the best. Something unique is the fact that you will enjoy cycle vaping.

To refill a Boulder vape tank, the first thing you need to do is to detach the tank from the battery, after this, bring out the heating element, and then you slowly and carefully refill it. Overall, the brand is a very good one as their products are of high quality and they are well affordable. The ingredients used in the production of their products are natural ingredients that have been carefully extracted from plants- their products speak originality. Talk about their team of workers too, they have well-trained professionals that take care of the careful production of these vape products and ensure that they are all safe, and enjoyable to use. They have lots of fruity flavours available for your enjoyment and their flavours range from mango to cherry, to vanilla, to menthol, and other amazing ones. Their tobacco flavored liquid is bold and earthy, making it an excellent choice for those making the transition from smoking tobacco to vaping e-cigarettes.

The layout of this vaporizer makes it interesting individuals that yearn for the modern style of streamlined looking designs. The product itself has some rather adaptive functions like the wise coil sensing technology. It will just enable itself to power on if there is a coil with a greater than 1 ohm of resistance. It will immediately adapt what kind of vape do i need for cbd cartridges to the resistance of whichever coil is presently being utilized with the vaporizer. Although the tank is a little tiny with only a 4 mL capacity the various other features greater than make up for the lack of area with this instead charitable product. Karing Kind Labs new CBD product line is perfect for the recreational CBD consumer.

Refilling the device’s 1.5mL module is also simple and quick thanks to the precision nozzle system. Now it’s a simple matter of pressing the firing button while inhaling on the Koi Stik. There is a small viewing window which will show you how much CBD vape juice you have left. It’s important to ensure that you don’t run the Koi Stik cartridge down too low as the coil and cotton will burn. Let’s explore what makes a great vape pen, what you should consider when shopping for a new pen, and where you can go to find the best vape pens and THC oil in Colorado. Portability – As what might be expected with these pens, both are great when it comes to being portable.

The supplier has actually handled to pack a sub residence vaporizer into one of the most portable type variables that are available on the marketplace today. You will not have a hard time to keep this one within your pocket. There are only 4 temperature level choice setups, nonetheless. The 320 mA battery is likewise a little underpowered contrasted to a few of the various other options out on the marketplace. Nevertheless the truth that it can make use of coil-less atomizers greater than offsets it. Many vape pens are developed using proprietary technology, and they don’t all work the same way .

He has over 10 years experience in manufacturing and has been featured on Vice. Greg currently contributes vape and dabbing related articles to The Fresh Toast, Weed Blog, Cannabis.net, and Ilovegrowingmarijuana.com. As mentioned earlier, coils can burn out and become damaged after use. It’s important to test the coil before, that way you won’t lose any vital wax. A dry herb vaporizer, on the other hand, requires a cooler temperature to burn, with the heat starting as low as 355 degrees Fahrenheit.

Other Methods For Taking Cbd

Here we’ll focus on some of the critical differences between a dry herb vape pen and a wax vape pen. It is broken out over the course of 7 differences that we believe help separate the two from each other. If you are a heavy doser, you may be consuming 25mg of CBD regularly or a little more. It will suffice for you for 20 days if you keep your daily dosage up to 25mg.

CBD e-liquids are therefore composed of a base with a PG / VG ratio that oscillates between 80/20 and 60/40, depending on the manufacturer. There are e-liquid CBD with aromas of tobacco, vanilla or mint, but there are also liquid terpenes with a very vegetal taste reminiscent of hemp. Terpenes are extracted from plants and are mainly used for their olfactory properties.

The battery will power your attachment for up to 10 seconds at a time before automatically powering off to prevent overheating . It comes with a power button that is well designed and it makes it quite easy to use and carry about unlike many other vapes. You can carry the Boulder Rock Vape in your pocket without having to worry about firing accidentally. One feature that most vapers commonly look out for in vape products is high quality, and this particular product is loaded with it. Being a product of a top-rated brand, the Boulder Rock Vape is made with quality material and ingredients that leaves you asking for more every time.

#2 The Aspen Slim Starter Kit

They take pride in making 100% plant-based Phyto nutrient-rich products that pass third party testing. They ensure purity by applying best practices to cultivate hemp and manufacturing final products produced in partnership with experienced experts. Vape juices contain some form of thinning agent since CBD oil is too viscous to turn into vapor. The thinning oil either comes in the form of propylene glycol or vegetable glycerin . There have been some health risk concerns regarding the former. To replace the tank on your Aspen Slim Vape Pen, simply unscrew the old tank from the battery, and replace with the new one.

The zinc alloy framework could be upgraded to higher quality product and we would certainly have an well-rounded All-Star on our hands. This is a perfect worth alternative for the vapor fan that is seeking something to use with routine e-liquid. It is not as well expensive however it still offers a excellent level of quality. The innovative power modification enables you to pick the best degree of power for the liquid that you are presently vaping.

Hey guys, not sure if this deserves a thread of it’s own but i thought i’d ask. To make finding the best vape this spot goes to two of the halo pens, the halo triton ii and the halo tracer twist. I guess what i’m asking for is just clean, relatively sweet juice that won’t gunk my coils too quick? Being super convenient, the boulder rock uses a standard usb port for recharging. The boulder rock vape kit comes with a free sample of pod juice and is the perfect device for those looking to quit smoking and start vaping.

No, we do not ship outside of the United States at this time. Our sisterUK vape website ships to most European countries. In order to limit reselling of bulk orders, Electric Tobacconist has implemented a purchase limit for some product categories. Essentially, the limit resets 30 days after reaching a category limit. You must be at least 21 years of age to order from Electric Tobacconist. You can read more about our age verification process can be found here.

There is no chance to make a decision for another person whose item is the most effective one for them. As you can see from this listing today there is a variety of alternatives when it pertains to these products. Near down what you are seeking out of the product and if you can go and also attempt some in person. This set has by far the highest concentration of cannabinoids out of all of the disposable models in our listing. This is fantastic if you are trying to find potent relief while you get on the go but would certainly still such as something that is both distinct as well as portable. It can be difficult to find something that can fit every one of these qualities while still being affordable.

The effortless and straightforward method for starting this concentrate vape pen makes it an excellent device. The main thing vapers will like about the Boulder Rock is its fast charge time and battery life. The Boulder Rock recharges in 45 minutes, and it lasts eight to ten hours. Just as importantly, the Boulder Rock has a good draw that is not too loose, but not too tight either. With the capability of setting any desired temperature between 200° – 428°F (93° – 220°C), users can experiment with low temperature true vaporization to explore optimal flavor profiles. This innovative technology opens up an entirely new vaporizing experience with unrivaled performance, taste, and effects.

Welcome all nice buyers communicate details of products and ideas with us!! We sincerely hope to build business relationship with you on the basis of mutual benefit and profit in the very near future. Warmly welcome to contact us and become our direct cooperators. Boulder incorporates an impressive 720mAh capacity that will ensure you are able to go on about your day without having to worry about recharging half way through.

Hangsen Onetime can be ordered individually for € 4.95 or in a 5-pack for € 19.95. There are evaporators (part of the e-cigarette that contains the tank), which are completely replaced when worn and those in which you only exchange the evaporator head (burner / coil / wick). In addition, there are very advanced evaporators in which you put the evaporator head itself, so-called nicotine pouches RBAs – Rebuildable Atomizers. Evaporator can also be called a tank system, because you often have a large e-liquid capacity. With CBD and by indirect inhalation, resistors with a value greater than 0.6 ohm, but preferably around 1 ohm, will be selected. As a result, the power of the battery expressed in watts, or the voltage expressed in volts, will have to adapt .

It can be tough to find something that can fit every one of these qualities while still being economical. The good news is you do not have to continue your search as this fits all of those standards provided above. As soon as you obtain your product you will be able to open it up and also begin using it without charging.

It comes along with a bottom that you will comfortably rotate to have the experience. Simple adjustments will make you enjoy your preferred vape strength. 0nly down side is the pods are hard to refill unless you have needle tip liquid containers. Due to PACT Act regulations, all orders must be shipped out adult signature required. Any adult at the delivery address who is 21 years of age or older may sign for your order. Some locations restrict the sale of certain vape products.

While dry hits are not pleasant, they are far less shocking than burnt hits. A dry hit will make its appearance as soon as the wick of your coil dries up a bit. You will get less flavor and exhale less vapor, without the nastiness and coughing that come with a burnt hit.

After seeing the favorable results of e cigarettes replacing smoking cigarettes, Co-Founders Greg and Alena chose to make their own e-juice. They desired a superior e-juice that could be vaped all day. All of this, while keeping its’ renowned style and originality and establishing their artistry, craft and dedication towards excellence. Whether you consider yourself a rookie vaper or you really understand your method around a mod, this guide is a handy resource that will help you find your next preferred vape brand. Just like any other industry out there, the world of vaping has a handful of leading brands that truly stand out from the rest.

Sleek, powerful, and long-lasting, the compact Viridian is perfectly sized for stealth vaping and looks great when you don’t need to be stealthy. Using the incomparable form factor of our iconic Boulder ROCK as a starting point, we’ve engineered a new version designed expressly for concentrates. Meet the Boulder Viridian, which creates a new benchmark for discreet ease and satisfaction in concentrate vaping. To derive the Viridian’s smooth, consistent draw, our team created an all-new vapor module thermally optimized for plant-based concentrates. Incredibly efficient, both in vapor output and battery management, the module is powered by a specially tuned chipset that provides ideal, real-time power allocation.

The manufacturer is not responsible for any damage or personal injury caused by inappropriate, incorrect, or irresponsible use of products. Products may not be returned to distributor once used in any way, manufacturers certain manufacturers have warranty’s included. For the best experience, we use cookies and similar tools to help Etsy function, for performance, analytics, personalization and advertising. The Boulder Rock Replacement pods are a creation combining the cotton threads and Kanthal wire for a sturdy and functional pod featuring a bottom-fill system with silica gel stopper. Compatible for the Boulder Rock Pod System and comes in a pack of two . Boulder International is an electronic cigarette company that markets a line of vaporizers.

If you’re new to vaping, however, the buffet of options you find at the dispensary can be overwhelming. Over the past number of years the marketplace for vaporizers has actually gone from a fairly particular niche product to mainstream appeal apparently overnight. It can be easy to be bewildered when you see the stunning array of tools that are now readily available. In some cases, you may even be dealing with multiple issues.

Vaporesso is an industry preferred, and despite the brand’s economical costs, its excellent devices are anything but low-cost. With high-end functions including advanced chipsets, OLED display screens, and sensational surfaces, Vaporesso provides you a high end experience for minimal financial investment. Among their premium stars, All Melon, is the fusion of the three most delicious melons understood to mankind.

Each kit includes a free 10mL bottle of Boulder e-liquid with 1.8% nicotine in tobacco flavor, so everything you need to get started is all available in a convenient and affordable package. At the end of the day, the type of pen you choose will come down to the type of preference you have. Dry herb pens are traditionally easier to maintain, easier to fill, and easier to control the temperature.

Some companies are dishonest about the ingredients and CBD vape additives they put into their oils. Using a CBD vape pen or vaporizer is one of the best ways to experience CBD quickly. In fact, taking CBD through inhalation is one of the fastest methods available. Although the experience can vary, you can typically feel the calming effects from CBD within about 5 to 10 minutes after inhalation.

We recommend following 710 Labs or our page on Instagram to get notified of their drops. The marketing for this product concentrates greatly on the fact that there are no fibers plastics or paints that are utilized in any type of part of the building of this product. The heating element that is made use of in the construction of this vaporizer also is a ceramic plate rather than a much more standard titanium coil. This permits you to get back at heating as well as eliminates the burning that is commonly associated with titanium coils when used in vaporizers.

All this in a size and shape that perfectly fits in your hand and pocket, and charges in any USB port without a cable. A new benchmark in concentrate vaping, the Viridian is sure to become another classic from Boulder Cigs. On closer examination, you can see and feel the textured surface of the pen. This Rock is an example of Boulder’s excellent workmanship. This is a portable device that you can conveniently put in your pocket or bag. The dimension of this vape pen is approximately 5 inches by 0.5 inches by 0.80 inches.

Designed specifically to work with Boulder e-liquids, the Rock has an original method of filling and refilling its tank. Thanks for the important and useful tip regarding the process of vaping. We at Vaporpalace are the ultimate destination for all your vaping cbd vape cartridge canada juice and other products. Check us out and keep up the good work of informing people. Charging times differ, but the key is to allow the vape to fully charge and be careful not to overcharge the battery, which can affect the battery’s long-term capacity.

Hotels and Holidays in Cyprus and Algarve: Amazing Sports Events Every Summer

Holidays should not be limited to a few days in the sun. This is a very important aspect of a holiday, especially when it comes to replenishing your spirit and mind. A little exercise is never fatal, and some sport can do wonders for your body. The Algarve and Cyprus offer the perfect holiday for this because they combine sun and What sports . You can enjoy sunbathing, snorkeling, windsurfing, and other water sports in the beautiful waters of the Algarve and Cyprus.

Book one of the Algarve’s top-rated hotels for your next vacation experience. There is plenty of sporting activity in the Algarve, which makes a holiday to the Algarve an ideal choice for everyone. The racing year starts in January with two events: the Almondblossom International Cross-Country Race in Albufeira, and the Grande Premio dos Reis em Atletismo In Faro. The Volta ao Algarve em Bicileta and RDP/Algarve Trophy Race in February mark the rise of cycling. The Algarve International Sailing Tournament is a highlight of the region’s sporting calendar. It takes place in Vilamoura every February. Tennis enthusiasts will love the Vale do Lobo Grand Championship in May and the Portugal Beach Open Tennis Tournament in August. Motorsport enthusiasts will not want to miss the World Motor Boat Championship in May, and World Motocross in August. The September Portimao International Horse Jumping Competition provides a dose old-fashioned sports entertainment. Two golf tournaments are held annually in the Algarve. The Vilamoura Grand Golf Trophy in December and the TAP Golf Tournament November are just two examples of the Algarve’s outstanding golfing.

You will find plenty of hotels in Cyprus and Algarve that are affordable. Although Cyprus is small, it offers many exciting sporting events. The year starts with the Cyprus Sunshine Cup. This 3-day cycling competition is held every year in February. In March, head to the Troodos Mountains for the Troodos Interst Ski Competition. The annual Cyprus Marathon, a race that takes runners through some of the most picturesque parts of Cyprus, is held in Paphos every March. The Larnaca Tennis club hosts the Cyprus Seniors Tennis Cup every May. To see small states win big, make sure you don’t miss XIII Games of Small States of Europe. Eight countries compete in mini Olympic-style games at this sporting event that is held biannually every June. November is a significant month for Cyprus sports with the FIA World Rally Championship and the Cyprus International 4-Day Challenge.

Vintage Car Insurance – How to Find the Best Rates

Would you ever wonder why various cars cost you various quantities for auto insurance premiums? Why is it that a new Corvette may cost you $1,600 pounds monthly in auto insurance and an older Buick Royal may only cost you $90 each month? The newest vehicle insurance charge versus the previous vehicle insurance charge is just a topic that you must review before you decide any car. Review insurance charges before you decide and you will not get found in a financial trap.

New cars charge more to ensure than previous cars for three reasons. First, an automobile theft of a fresh and amazing vehicle charges a whole lot more compared to auto theft of an older and average design car. This is due to the large price difference of the brand new vehicle versus previous car. As an example, a fresh Chevy Caprice is a lot more pricey to ensure than an older Chevy Caprice. It just charges more income to restore a fresh, expensive vehicle than an older, less expensive car.

Second, the fee to repair a fresh vehicle is a lot more than the fee to repair a classic car. Therefore, that truth will also boost your insurance premium charge for a fresh car. As an example, if a new Chevy Caprice is broken in an incident, the auto repair center may demand you much more income for repairs than if the topic vehicle were a ten-year previous Chevy Caprice. Because of this, your insurer may demand you a whole lot more insurance premiums on a fresh vehicle than an older vehicle as a result of such restoration costs.

Next, the design and kind of vehicle also will considerably influence the cost of Car insurance premiums that your vehicle insurance company may demand you. Insurance organizations use actuarial statistic tables which show them yesteryear loss knowledge on specific types and kinds of cars. They use these tables, to greatly help calculate what premiums to demand their consumers in the future. Mathematical tables display these insurance companies that owners of certain types and kinds of cars, such as for example activities cars, participate in more hazardous operating conduct than owners of cars that are of average type and style.

As an example, insurance company mathematical tables reveal that the insurer has experienced more losses with activities cars than with average cars. It is really because who owns a Corvette will probably push such vehicle faster and riskier than who owns a Toyota Camry. With such rate and chance also occurs more losses for the insurance companies. With such chance and loss improve, the insurance company must then improve their reunite and demand more for auto insurance premiums.

Still another example of how the sort and type of vehicle may provide an insurance company with more chance could be the off-road design vehicles including the Hummer line of vehicles. These vehicles are designed to perform in the off-road type environment. They’re raised up down the floor more than regular automobiles at under carriage clearance. Moreover, they also have four-wheel push capability.

With such style features, the mathematical tables reveal that the insurance company has experienced more losses with these kind of cars than regular cars. The reason being the owners of such vehicles may participate in off-road operating that is both hazardous to the car and driver. In reality, some insurance organizations may bar healing for such injuries, when who owns the insured vehicle was broken while any doing hazardous, off-road driving. Again, with more chance, the insurance company increases reunite and thus auto insurance premiums. Now that you understand that certain types and kinds of cars charge more to ensure than the others, you have to be wise about what sort of vehicle you are likely to buy.

As opposed to have a guess at that which you believe a vehicle’s insurance charges are, contact your vehicle insurance company and question your insurance representative for a totally free vehicle insurance estimate for the actual kind of vehicle that you will be interested in buying. You can get a certain response to your problem of whether or not you are able both the vehicle and the insurance premiums necessary to protect your vehicle against insured losses.

The time to create such assessment isn’t following you buy a vehicle. At that point in time, it’s also late. The time to create such assessment is way before your getting an automobile. You definitely wish to be ready to create both vehicle obligations along with insurance premium payments. Get a totally free auto insurance estimate ahead of time and avoid financial problems.

Secret Behind Technology Blogging: A Best Niche In Blogging

It is no secret that there is a secret behind technology blogging; it is one of the best niches in blogging. Blogging about technology is one of the best ways to get ahead in modern society. In fact, technology blogging is the best niche in blogging these days for anyone who wants to start up a successful business.

If you plan to create a new business or any successful business ventures, one of the best ways to do so is to consider the technology niche in blogging.

The Secrets of Niche Blogging: Technology

These days there are so many technologies to choose from, it’s hard not to blog about them. Some popular examples of technology blogs include:

iPhone how to guides and tutorials

Information and technology news

Technology updates and rumors

The latest technological breakthroughs

Android

Windows and Mac

Technology Editorials and Opinion Pieces

Technology blogs are the perfect accompaniment to a day job although many people find running a niche technology blog can be exciting and take up a bit of time on the side.

How To Run A Successful Secret Technology Niche Blogging Business

It doesn’t take very long to get a niche technology blog up and running. All one need to do is set up a blog account, which is easily done through WordPress or any other free blogging module.

Typically it helps to add a new blog post at least once or twice a week, if not daily. This helps to compete with ultra high-ranking websites. The technology niche is one of the simplest niches to write about.

There are tons of information readily available about most forms of technology. There is always something new in the news about the latest iPhone, or what some star or celebrity has done with their Mac, or latest technology device.

The other approach to technology is writing about how you made money using technology. Most people want nothing more than to learn about how they can make money using technology. And, that is essentially what you do when you create a niche technology blog… make money using technology.

Another great niche in the technology arena is a blog focusing on general technological advances and information. However, the competition for a niche that broad however, may be very high, especially when it comes to purchasing AdSense revenue. If you can narrow your technology niche down significantly, to something very narrow, then you will reap the benefits.

Good, narrow niches are well thought out. Some examples may include very detailed subjects and niche topics, including:

iPhone covers and cases

Android Travel Phones

Mac laptop covers and cases

Windows technological breakthroughs

The more narrow the subject material, the more likely you are to select keywords that bring in targeted audience members. There is also less likely to be competition for your keywords. You want to pay as little as possible to attract AdSense revenues. This is how to make the most bang for your buck when blogging on technology.

Remember that the secret is out; technology is a great niche to take advantage of. People are constantly seeking new and exciting information about technology. So discover the areas you can write better about, and dig in. Discover for yourself the secret behind technology blogging and find a good niche in the technology blogging that you and your business can get benefit from.

Leaping Into the 6th Technology Revolution

We’re at risk of missing out on some of the most profound opportunities offered by the technology revolution that has just begun.

Yet many are oblivious to the signs and are in danger of watching this become a period of noisy turmoil rather than the full-blown insurrection needed to launch us into a green economy. What we require is not a new spinning wheel, but fabrics woven with nanofibers that generate solar power. To make that happen, we need a radically reformulated way of understanding markets, technology, financing, and the role of government in accelerating change. But will we understand the opportunities before they disappear?

Seeing the Sixth Revolution for What It Is

We are seven years into the beginning of what analysts at BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research call the Sixth Revolution. A table by Carlotta Perez, which was presented during a recent BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research luncheon hosted by Robert Preston and Steven Milunovich, outlines the revolutions that are unexpected in their own time that lead to the one in which we find ourselves.

 

  • 1771: Mechanization and improved water wheels
  • 1829: Development of steam for industry and railways
  • 1875: Cheap steel, availability of electricity, and the use of city gas
  • 1908: Inexpensive oil, mass-produced internal combustion engine vehicles, and universal electricity
  • 1971: Expansion of information and tele-communications
  • 2003: Cleantech and biotech

 

The Vantage of Hindsight

Looking back at 1971, we know that Intel’s introduction of the microprocessor marked the beginning of a new era. But in that year, this meant little to people watching Mary Tyler Moore and The Partridge Family, or listening to Tony Orlando & Dawn and Janis Joplin. People would remember humanity’s first steps on the Moon, opening relations between US and China, perhaps the successful completion of the Human Genome Project to 99.99% accuracy, and possibly the birth of Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists.

 

According to Ben Weinberg, Partner, Element Partners, “Every day, we see American companies with promising technologies that are unable to deploy their products because of a lack of debt financing. By filling this gap, the government will ignite the mass deployment of innovative technologies, allowing technologies ranging from industrial waste heat to pole-mounted solar PV to prove their economics and gain credibility in the debt markets.” 

 

Flying beneath our collective radar was the first floppy disk drive by IBM, the world’s first e-mail sent by Ray Tomlinson, the launch of the first laser printer by Xerox PARC and the Cream Soda Computer by Bill Fernandez and Steve Wozniak (who would found the Apple Computer company with Steve Jobs a few years later). 

Times have not changed that much. It’s 2011 and many of us face a similar disconnect with the events occurring around us. We are at the equivalent of 1986, a year on the cusp of the personal computer and the Internet fundamentally changing our world. 1986 was also the year that marked the beginning of a major financial shift into new markets. Venture Capital (VC) experienced its most substantial finance-raising season, with approximately $750 million, and the NASDAQ was established to help create a market for these companies.

Leading this charge was Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Beyers (KPCB), a firm that turned technical expertise into possibly the most successful IT venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. The IT model looked for a percentage of big successes to offset losses: an investment like the $8 million in Cerent, which was sold to Cisco Systems for $6.9 billion, could make up for a lot of great ideas that didn’t quite make it.

Changing Financial Models

But the VC model that worked so well for information and telecommunications doesn’t work in the new revolution. Not only is the financing scale of the cleantech revolution orders of magnitude larger than the last, this early in the game even analysts are struggling to see the future.

Steven Milunovich, who hosted the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research lunch, remarked that each revolution has an innovation phase which may last for as long as 25 years, followed by an implementation phase of another 25. Most money is made in the first 20 years, so real players want to get in early. But the question is: Get in where, for how much and with whom?

There is still market scepticism and uncertainty about the staying power of the clean energy revolution. Milunovich estimates that many institutional investors don’t believe in global warming, and adopt a “wait and see” attitude complicated by government impasse on energy security legislation. For those who are looking at these markets, their motivation ranges from concerns about oil scarcity, supremacy in the “new Sputnik” race, the shoring up of homeland security and – for some – a concern about the effects of climate change. Many look askance at those who see that we are in the midst of a fundamental change in how we produce and use energy. Milunovich, for all these reasons, is “cautious in the short term, bullish on the long.”

The Valley of Death

Every new technology brings with it needs for new financing. In the sixth revolution, with budget needs 10 times those of IT, the challenge is moving from idea to prototype to commercialization. The Valley of Death, as a recent Bloomberg New Energy Finance whitepaper, Crossing the Valley of Death pointed out, is the gap between technology creation and commercial maturity.

But some investors and policy makers continue to hope that private capital will fuel this gap, much as it did the last. They express concern over the debt from government programs like the stimulus funds (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) which have invested millions in new technologies in the clean energy sector, as well as helping states with rebuilding infrastructure and other projects. They question why the traditional financing models, which made the United States the world leader in information technology and telecommunications, can’t be made to work today, if the Government would just get out of the way.

But analysts from many sides of financing believe that government support, of some kind, is essential to move projects forward, because cleantech and biotech projects require a much larger input of capital in order to get to commercialization. This gap not only affects commercialization, but is also affecting investments in new technologies, because financial interests are concerned that their investment might not see fruition – get to commercial scale.

How new technologies are radically different from the computer revolution.

Infrastructure complexity

This revolution is highly dependent on an existing – but aging – energy infrastructure. Almost 40 years after the start of the telecommunications revolution, we are still struggling with a communications infrastructure that is fragmented, redundant, and inefficient. Integrating new sources of energy, and making better use of what we have, is an even more complex – and more vital – task.

According to “Crossing the Valley of Death,” the Bloomberg New Energy Finance Whitepaper,

 

“The events of the past few years confirm that it is only with the public sector’s help that the Commercialization Valley of Death can be addressed, both in the short and the long term. Only public institutions have ‘public benefits’ obligations and the associated mandated risk-tolerance for such classes of investments, along with the capital available to make a difference at scale. Project financiers have shown they are willing to pick up the ball and finance the third, 23rd, and 300th project that uses that new technology. It is the initial technology risk that credit committees and investment managers will not tolerate.” 

 

Everything runs on fuel and energy, from our homes to our cars to our industries, schools, and hospitals. Most of us have experienced the disconnect we feel when caught in a blackout: “The air-conditioner won’t work so I guess I’ll turn on a fan,” only to realize we can’t do either. Because energy is so vital to every aspect of our economy, federal, state and local entities regulate almost every aspect of how energy is developed, deployed, and monetized. Wind farm developers face a patchwork quilt of municipal, county, state and federal regulations in getting projects to scale. 

Incentives from government sources, as well as utilities, pose both an opportunity and a threat: the market rises and falls in direct proportion to funding and incentives. Navigating these challenges takes time and legal expertise: neither of which are in abundant supply to entrepreneurs.

Development costs

Though microchips are creating ever-smaller electronics, cleantech components – such as wind turbines and photovoltaics – are huge. They can’t be developed in a garage, like Hewlett and Packard’s first oscilloscope. A new generation of biofuels that utilizes nanotechnology isn’t likely to take place out of a dorm room, as did Michael Dell’s initial business selling customized computers. What this means for sixth revolution projects is that they have much larger funding needs, at much earlier stages.

Stepping up and supporting innovation, universities – and increasingly corporations – are partnering with early stage entrepreneurs. They are providing technology resources, such as laboratories and technical support, as well as management expertise in marketing, product development, government processes, and financing. Universities get funds from technology transfer arrangements, while corporations invest in a new technologies, expanding their product base, opening new businesses, or providing cost-benefit and risk-analysis of various approaches.

But even with such help, venture capital and other private investors are needed to augment costs that cannot be born alone. These investors look to some assurance that projects will produce revenue in order to return the original investment. So concerns over the Valley of Death affects even early stage funding.

Time line to completion

So many of us balk at two year contracts for our cell phones that there is talk of making such requirements illegal. But energy projects, by their size and complexity, look out over years, if not decades. Commercial and industrial customers look to spread their costs over ten to twenty years, and contracts cover contingencies like future business failure, the sale of properties, or the prospect of renovations that may affect the long term viability of the original project.

Kevin Walsh, managing director and head of Power and Renewable Energy at GE Energy Financial Services states, “GE Energy Financial Services supports the creation of CEDA or a similar institution because it would expand the availability of low-cost capital to the projects and companies in which we invest, and it would help expand the market for technology supplied by other GE businesses.”

Michael Holman, analyst for Lux Research, noted that a $25 million investment in Google morphed into $1.7 billion 5 years later. In contrast, a leading energy storage company started with a $300 million investment, and 9 years later valuation remains uncertain. These are the kinds of barriers that can stall the drive we need for 21st century technologies.

Looking to help bridge the gap in new cleantech and biotech projects, is a proposed government-based solution called the Clean Energy Deployment Administration (CEDA). There is a house and senate version, as well as a house Green Bank bill to provide gap financing. Recently, over 42 companies, representing many industries and organizations, signed a letter to President Obama, supporting the Senate version, the “21st Century Energy Technology Deployment Act.”

Both the house and senate bills propose to create, as an office within the US Department of Energy (DOE), an administration which would be tasked with lending to risky cleantech projects for the purpose of bringing new technologies to market. CEDA would be the bridge needed to ensure the successful establishment of the green economy, by partnering with private investment to bring the funding needed to get these technologies to scale. Both versions capitalize the agency with $10 Billion (Senate) and $7.5 Billion (House), with an expected 10% loss reserve long term.

By helping a new technology move more effectively through the pipeline from idea to deployment, CEDA can substantially increase private sector investment in energy technology development and deployment. It can create a more successful US clean energy industry, with all the attendant economic and job creation benefits.

Who Benefits?

CEDA funding could be seen as beneficial for even the most unlikely corporations. Ted Horan is the Marketing and Business Development Manager for Hycrete, a company that sells a waterproof concrete. Hardly a company that springs to mind when we think about clean technologies, he recently commented on why Hycrete CEO, Richard Guinn, is a signatory on the letter to Obama:

 

“The allocation of funding for emerging clean energy technologies through CEDA is an important step in solving our energy and climate challenges. Companies on the cusp of large-scale commercial deployment will benefit greatly and help accelerate the adoption of clean energy practices throughout our economy.” 

 

In his opinion, the manufacturing and construction that is needed to push us out of a stagnating economy will be supported by innovation coming from the cleantech and biotech sectors. 

Google’s Dan Reicher, Director of Climate Change and Energy Initiatives, has been a supporter from the inception of CEDA. He has testified before both houses of Congress, and was a signatory on the letter to President Obama. Google’s interest in clean and renewable energies dates back several years. The company is actively involved in projects to cut costs of solar thermal and expand the use of plug-in vehicles, and has developed the Power Meter, a product which brings home energy management to anyone’s desktop-for free.

Financial support includes corporations like GE Energy Financial Services, Silicon Valley Venture Capital such as Kleiner, Perkins Caulfiled and Byers, and Mohr Davidow Ventures, and Energy Capital including Hudson Clean Energy and Element Partners.Can something like the senate version of CEDA leap the Valley of Death?

As Will Coleman from Mohr Davidow Ventures, said, “The Devil’s in the details.” The Senate version has two significant changes from previous proposals: an emphasis on breakthrough as opposed to conventional technologies, and political independence.

Neil Auerbach, Managing Partner, Hudson Clean Energy

The clean energy sector can be a dynamic growth engine for the US economy, but not without thoughtful government support for private capital formation. **[Government policy] promises to serve as a valuable bridging tool to accelerate private capital formation around companies facing the challenge, and can help ensure that the US remains at the forefront of the race for dominance in new energy technologies.

Breakthrough Technologies

Coleman said that “breakthrough” includes the first or second deployment of a new approach, not just the game changing science-fiction solution that finally brings us limitless energy at no cost. The Bloomberg New Energy white paper uses the term “First of Class.” Bringing solar efficiency up from 10% to 20%, or bringing manufacturing costs down by 50%, would be a breakthrough that would help us begin to compete with threats from China and India. Conventional technologies, those that are competing with existing commercialized projects, would get less emphasis.

Political Independence

Political independence is top of mind for many who spoke or provided an analysis of the bill. Michael Holman, analyst at Lux Research, expressed the strongest concerns that CEDA doesn’t focus enough on incentives to bring together innovative start-ups with larger established firms.

 

“The government itself taking on the responsibility of deciding what technologies to back isn’t likely to work-it’s an approach with a dreadful track record. That said, it is important for the federal government to lead – the current financing model for bringing new energy technologies to market is broken, and new approaches are badly needed.” 

 

For many, the senate bill has many advantages over the house bill, in providing for a decision making process that includes technologists and private sector experts. 

 

“I think both sides [of the aisle] understand this is an important program, and must enable the government to be flexible and employ a number of different approaches. The Senate version empowers CEDA to take a portfolio approach and manage risk over time, which I think is good. In the House bill, CEDA has to undergo the annual appropriation process, which runs the risk of politicizing every investment decision in isolation and before we have a chance to see the portfolio mature.” – Will Coleman, Mohr Davidow. 

 

Michael DeRosa, Managing Director of Element Partners added, 

 

“The framework must ensure the selection of practical technologies, optimization of risk/return for taxpayer dollars, and appropriate oversight for project selection and spending. **Above all, these policies must be designed with free markets principles in mind and not be subject to political process.” 

 

If history is any indication, rarely are those in the middle of game-changing events aware of their role in what will one day be well-known for their sweeping influence. But what we can see clearly now is the gap between idea and commercial maturity. CEDA certainly offers some hope that we may yet see the cleantech age grow up into adulthood. But will we act quickly enough before all of the momentum and hard work that has brought us this far falls flat as other countries take leadership roles, leaving us in the dust? 

THE GREEN ECONOMY is an information company, providing timely, credible facts and analyses on companies adapting to meet the challenges of a green future.

Markets are in transition; customers are demanding a higher quality of life, such as clean water and energy. These pressures are affecting commodity prices, access to markets, the nature of innovation and more. At the same time, infrastructure (water, energy, transportation), is becoming more – not less – localized. These changes mean opportunities and demand new partnerships to deliver increasingly complex solutions. THE GREEN ECONOMY tells those stories.

Impacts of Information Technology on Society in the New Century

In the past few decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological progress and use of information technology will continue at a rapid pace. Accompanying and supporting the dramatic increases in the power and use of new information technologies has been the declining cost of communications as a result of both technological improvements and increased competition. According to Moore’s law the processing power of microchips is doubling every 18 months. These advances present many significant opportunities but also pose major challenges. Today, innovations in information technology are having wide-ranging effects across numerous domains of society, and policy makers are acting on issues involving economic productivity, intellectual property rights, privacy protection, and affordability of and access to information. Choices made now will have long lasting consequences, and attention must be paid to their social and economic impacts.

One of the most significant outcomes of the progress of information technology is probably electronic commerce over the Internet, a new way of conducting business. Though only a few years old, it may radically alter economic activities and the social environment. Already, it affects such large sectors as communications, finance and retail trade and might expand to areas such as education and health services. It implies the seamless application of information and communication technology along the entire value chain of a business that is conducted electronically.

The impacts of information technology and electronic commerce on business models, commerce, market structure, workplace, labour market, education, private life and society as a whole.

1. Business Models, Commerce and Market Structure

One important way in which information technology is affecting work is by reducing the importance of distance. In many industries, the geographic distribution of work is changing significantly. For instance, some software firms have found that they can overcome the tight local market for software engineers by sending projects to India or other nations where the wages are much lower. Furthermore, such arrangements can take advantage of the time differences so that critical projects can be worked on nearly around the clock. Firms can outsource their manufacturing to other nations and rely on telecommunications to keep marketing, R&D, and distribution teams in close contact with the manufacturing groups. Thus the technology can enable a finer division of labour among countries, which in turn affects the relative demand for various skills in each nation. The technology enables various types of work and employment to be decoupled from one another. Firms have greater freedom to locate their economic activities, creating greater competition among regions in infrastructure, labour, capital, and other resource markets. It also opens the door for regulatory arbitrage: firms can increasingly choose which tax authority and other regulations apply.

Computers and communication technologies also promote more market-like forms of production and distribution. An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing 24-hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation. This infrastructure might also provide the means for effecting real-time transactions and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock brokers and travel agents, whose function is to provide an essential information link between buyers and sellers, redundant. Removal of intermediaries would reduce the costs in the production and distribution value chain. The information technologies have facilitated the evolution of enhanced mail order retailing, in which goods can be ordered quickly by using telephones or computer networks and then dispatched by suppliers through integrated transport companies that rely extensively on computers and communication technologies to control their operations. Nonphysical goods, such as software, can be shipped electronically, eliminating the entire transport channel. Payments can be done in new ways. The result is disintermediation throughout the distribution channel, with cost reduction, lower end-consumer prices, and higher profit margins.

The impact of information technology on the firms’ cost structure can be best illustrated on the electronic commerce example. The key areas of cost reduction when carrying out a sale via electronic commerce rather than in a traditional store involve physical establishment, order placement and execution, customer support, strong, inventory carrying, and distribution. Although setting up and maintaining an e-commerce web site might be expensive, it is certainly less expensive to maintain such a storefront than a physical one because it is always open, can be accessed by millions around the globe, and has few variable costs, so that it can scale up to meet the demand. By maintaining one ‘store’ instead of several, duplicate inventory costs are eliminated. In addition, e-commerce is very effective at reducing the costs of attracting new customers, because advertising is typically cheaper than for other media and more targeted. Moreover, the electronic interface allows e-commerce merchants to check that an order is internally consistent and that the order, receipt, and invoice match. Through e-commerce, firms are able to move much of their customer support on line so that customers can access databases or manuals directly. This significantly cuts costs while generally improving the quality of service. E-commerce shops require far fewer, but high-skilled, employees. E-commerce also permits savings in inventory carrying costs. The faster the input can be ordered and delivered, the less the need for a large inventory. The impact on costs associated with decreased inventories is most pronounced in industries where the product has a limited shelf life (e.g. bananas), is subject to fast technological obsolescence or price declines (e.g. computers), or where there is a rapid flow of new products (e.g. books, music). Although shipping costs can increase the cost of many products purchased via electronic commerce and add substantially to the final price, distribution costs are significantly reduced for digital products such as financial services, software, and travel, which are important e-commerce segments.

Although electronic commerce causes the disintermediation of some intermediaries, it creates greater dependency on others and also some entirely new intermediary functions. Among the intermediary services that could add costs to e-commerce transactions are advertising, secure online payment, and delivery. The relative ease of becoming an e-commerce merchant and setting up stores results in such a huge number of offerings that consumers can easily be overwhelmed. This increases the importance of using advertising to establish a brand name and thus generate consumer familiarity and trust. For new e-commerce start-ups, this process can be expensive and represents a significant transaction cost. The openness, global reach, and lack of physical clues that are inherent characteristics of e-commerce also make it vulnerable to fraud and thus increase certain costs for e-commerce merchants as compared to traditional stores. New techniques are being developed to protect the use of credit cards in e-commerce transactions, but the need for greater security and user verification leads to increased costs. A key feature of e-commerce is the convenience of having purchases delivered directly. In the case of tangibles, such as books, this incurs delivery costs, which cause prices to rise in most cases, thereby negating many of the savings associated with e-commerce and substantially adding to transaction costs.

With the Internet, e-commerce is rapidly expanding into a fast-moving, open global market with an ever-increasing number of participants. The open and global nature of e-commerce is likely to increase market size and change market structure, both in terms of the number and size of players and the way in which players compete on international markets. Digitized products can cross the border in real time, consumers can shop 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and firms are increasingly faced with international online competition. The Internet is helping to enlarge existing markets by cutting through many of the distribution and marketing barriers that can prevent firms from gaining access to foreign markets. E-commerce lowers information and transaction costs for operating on overseas markets and provides a cheap and efficient way to strengthen customer-supplier relations. It also encourages companies to develop innovative ways of advertising, delivering and supporting their product and services. While e-commerce on the Internet offers the potential for global markets, certain factors, such as language, transport costs, local reputation, as well as differences in the cost and ease of access to networks, attenuate this potential to a greater or lesser extent.

2. Workplace and Labour Market

Computers and communication technologies allow individuals to communicate with one another in ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic, and written modes. They enable collaborative work involving distributed communities of actors who seldom, if ever, meet physically. These technologies utilize communication infrastructures that are both global and always up, thus enabling 24-hour activity and asynchronous as well as synchronous interactions among individuals, groups, and organizations. Social interaction in organizations will be affected by use of computers and communication technologies. Peer-to-peer relations across department lines will be enhanced through sharing of information and coordination of activities. Interaction between superiors and subordinates will become more tense because of social control issues raised by the use of computerized monitoring systems, but on the other hand, the use of e-mail will lower the barriers to communications across different status levels, resulting in more uninhibited communications between supervisor and subordinates.

That the importance of distance will be reduced by computers and communication technology also favours telecommuting, and thus, has implications for the residence patterns of the citizens. As workers find that they can do most of their work at home rather than in a centralized workplace, the demand for homes in climatically and physically attractive regions would increase. The consequences of such a shift in employment from the suburbs to more remote areas would be profound. Property values would rise in the favoured destinations and fall in the suburbs. Rural, historical, or charming aspects of life and the environment in the newly attractive areas would be threatened. Since most telecommuters would be among the better educated and higher paid, the demand in these areas for high-income and high-status services like gourmet restaurants and clothing boutiques would increase. Also would there be an expansion of services of all types, creating and expanding job opportunities for the local population.

By reducing the fixed cost of employment, widespread telecommuting should make it easier for individuals to work on flexible schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold two or more jobs simultaneously. Since changing employers would not necessarily require changing one’s place of residence, telecommuting should increase job mobility and speed career advancement. This increased flexibility might also reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction. Since job stress is a major factor governing health there may be additional benefits in the form of reduced health costs and mortality rates. On the other hand one might also argue that technologies, by expanding the number of different tasks that are expected of workers and the array of skills needed to perform these tasks, might speed up work and increase the level of stress and time pressure on workers.

A question that is more difficult to be answered is about the impacts that computers and communications might have on employment. The ability of computers and communications to perform routine tasks such as bookkeeping more rapidly than humans leads to concern that people will be replaced by computers and communications. The response to this argument is that even if computers and communications lead to the elimination of some workers, other jobs will be created, particularly for computer professionals, and that growth in output will increase overall employment. It is more likely that computers and communications will lead to changes in the types of workers needed for different occupations rather than to changes in total employment.

A number of industries are affected by electronic commerce. The distribution sector is directly affected, as e-commerce is a way of supplying and delivering goods and services. Other industries, indirectly affected, are those related to information and communication technology (the infrastructure that enables e-commerce), content-related industries (entertainment, software), transactions-related industries (financial sector, advertising, travel, transport). eCommerce might also create new markets or extend market reach beyond traditional borders. Enlarging the market will have a positive effect on jobs. Another important issue relates to inter linkages among activities affected by e-commerce. Expenditure for e-commerce-related intermediate goods and services will create jobs indirectly, on the basis of the volume of electronic transactions and their effect on prices, costs and productivity. The convergence of media, telecommunication and computing technologies is creating a new integrated supply chain for the production and delivery of multimedia and information content. Most of the employment related to e-commerce around the content industries and communication infrastructure such as the Internet.

Jobs are both created and destroyed by technology, trade, and organizational change. These processes also underlie changes in the skill composition of employment. Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with different skill levels will be affected differently. E-commerce is certainly driving the demand for IT professionals but it also requires IT expertise to be coupled with strong business application skills, thereby generating demand for a flexible, multi-skilled work force. There is a growing need for increased integration of Internet front-end applications with enterprise operations, applications and back-end databases. Many of the IT skill requirements needed for Internet support can be met by low-paid IT workers who can deal with the organizational services needed for basic web page programming. However, wide area networks, competitive web sites, and complex network applications require much more skill than a platform-specific IT job. Since the skills required for e-commerce are rare and in high demand, e-commerce might accelerate the up skilling trend in many countries by requiring high-skilled computer scientists to replace low-skilled information clerks, cashiers and market salespersons.

3. Education

Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects. Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects.

Although distance learning has existed for some time, the Internet makes possible a large expansion in coverage and better delivery of instruction. Text can be combined with audio/ video, and students can interact in real time via e-mail and discussion groups. Such technical improvements coincide with a general demand for retraining by those who, due to work and family demands, cannot attend traditional courses. Distance learning via the Internet is likely to complement existing schools for children and university students, but it could have more of a substitution effect for continuing education programmes. For some degree programmes, high-prestige institutions could use their reputation to attract students who would otherwise attend a local facility. Owing to the Internet’s ease of access and convenience for distance learning, overall demand for such programmes will probably expand, leading to growth in this segment of e-commerce.

As shown in the previous section, high level skills are vital in a technology-based and knowledge intensive economy. Changes associated with rapid technological advances in industry have made continual upgrading of professional skills an economic necessity. The goal of lifelong learning can only be accomplished by reinforcing and adapting existing systems of learning, both in public and private sectors. The demand for education and training concerns the full range of modern technology. Information technologies are uniquely capable of providing ways to meet this demand. Online training via the Internet ranges from accessing self-study courses to complete electronic classrooms. These computer-based training programmes provide flexibility in skills acquisition and are more affordable and relevant than more traditional seminars and courses.

4. Private Life and Society

Increasing representation of a wide variety of content in digital form results in easier and cheaper duplication and distribution of information. This has a mixed effect on the provision of content. On the one hand, content can be distributed at a lower unit cost. On the other hand, distribution of content outside of channels that respect intellectual property rights can reduce the incentives of creators and distributors to produce and make content available in the first place. Information technology raises a host of questions about intellectual property protection and new tools and regulations have to be developed in order to solve this problem.

Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls for mechanisms to control objectionable content. However it is very difficult to find a sensible solution. Dealing with indecent material involves understanding not only the views on such topics but also their evolution over time. Furthermore, the same technology that allows for content altering with respect to decency can be used to filter political speech and to restrict access to political material. Thus, if censorship does not appear to be an option, a possible solution might be labelling. The idea is that consumers will be better informed in their decisions to avoid objectionable content.

The rapid increase in computing and communications power has raised considerable concern about privacy both in the public and private sector. Decreases in the cost of data storage and information processing make it likely that it will become practicable for both government and private data-mining enterprises to collect detailed dossiers on all citizens. Nobody knows who currently collects data about individuals, how this data is used and shared or how this data might be misused. These concerns lower the consumers’ trust in online institutions and communication and, thus, inhibit the development of electronic commerce. A technological approach to protecting privacy might by cryptography although it might be claimed that cryptography presents a serious barrier to criminal investigations.

It is popular wisdom that people today suffer information overload. A lot of the information available on the Internet is incomplete and even incorrect. People spend more and more of their time absorbing irrelevant information just because it is available and they think they should know about it. Therefore, it must be studied how people assign credibility to the information they collect in order to invent and develop new credibility systems to help consumers to manage the information overload.

Technological progress inevitably creates dependence on technology. Indeed the creation of vital infrastructure ensures dependence on that infrastructure. As surely as the world is now dependent on its transport, telephone, and other infrastructures, it will be dependent on the emerging information infrastructure. Dependence on technology can bring risks. Failures in the technological infrastructure can cause the collapse of economic and social functionality. Blackouts of long-distance telephone service, credit data systems, and electronic funds transfer systems, and other such vital communications and information processing services would undoubtedly cause widespread economic disruption. However, it is probably impossible to avoid technological dependence. Therefore, what must be considered is the exposure brought from dependence on technologies with a recognizable probability of failure, no workable substitute at hand, and high costs as a result of failure.

The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology design. Decisions have to be taken carefully. Many choices being made now will be costly or difficult to modify in the future.

Does Technology Benefit Young Children’s Education?

As parents, all of us have fought the battle with our kids as they are absorbed into a video game or movie on an iPad, tablet or smartphone. We’ve had a better chance of getting the attention of Tom Cruise walking the red carpet than our kids.

Today, it’s common for two-year-olds to be using iPads, elementary schoolers hooked up to video games, and we all suffer (or live with) the challenge of prying your middle-schooler away from the computer long enough to eat a decent meal…

Technology is everywhere and its draw on kids is obvious, but is technology helping our kids learn?
Technology is becoming more social, adaptive, and customized, and as a result, it can be a fantastic teaching tool. That stated, as parents, we need to establish boundaries.

Today, software is connecting kids to online learning communities, tracking kids’ progress through lessons and games, and customizing each students’ experience.

By the time your child is in elementary school, they will probably well-versed in technology.

Learning with Technology at School
Schools are investing more and more in technology. Whether your child’s class uses an interactive Smartboard, laptops, or another device, here are three ways to make sure that technology is used effectively.

Young children love playing with technology, from iPads to digital cameras. What do early childhood practitioners – and parents, too – need to think about before handing kids these gadgets?

Let’s start at the beginning: what is technology in early childhood?
Technology can be as simple as a camera, audio recorder, music player, TV, DVD player, or more recent technology like iPads, tablets, and smartphones used in child care centers, classrooms, or at home.

More than once, I’ve had teachers tell me, “I don’t do technology.” I ask them if they’ve ever taken a digital photo of their students, played a record, tape, or DVD, or give kids headphones to listen to a story.

Teachers have always used technology. The difference is that now teachers are using really powerful tools like iPads and iPhones in their personal and professional lives.

Technology is just a tool.
It shouldn’t be used in classrooms or child care centers because it’s cool, but because teachers can do activities that support the healthy development of children.

Teachers are using digital cameras – a less flashy technology than iPads – in really creative ways to engage children in learning. That may be all they need.

At the same time, teachers need to be able to integrate technology into the classroom or child care center as a social justice matter.

We can’t assume that all children have technology at home.

A lack of exposure could widen the digital divide – that is, the gap between those with and without access to digital technology – and limit some children’s school readiness and early success.

Just as all children need to learn how to handle a book in early literacy, they need to be taught how to use technology, including how to open it, how it works, and how to take care of it.

Experts worry that technology is bad for children.

There are serious concerns about children spending too much time in front of screens, especially given the many screens in children’s lives.

Today, very young children are sitting in front of TVs, playing on iPads and iPhones, and watching their parents take photos on a digital camera, which has its own screen.

There used to be only the TV screen.

That was the screen we worried about and researched for 30 years.

We as a field know a whole lot about the impact of TV on children’s behavior and learning, but we know very little about all the new digital devices.

The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages screen time for children under two years old, but the NAEYC/Fred Rogers position statement takes a slightly different stance.

It says that technology and media should be limited, but what matters most is how it is used.

What is the content?

Is it being used in an intentional manner?

Is it developmentally appropriate?

As parents, we need to be aware of the drawbacks of technology and its impact on eyesight, vocabulary and physical development. We also need to be cognizant of our kids overall development,

My advice to teachers and parents is to trust your instincts. You know your child and if you think they have been watching the screen too long, turn it off.

It’s up to us, as parents, to notice that your child’s computer time is reducing or limiting interactions and playtime with other kids and nudge them in new directions. To encourage them to be physically active, to get outside and play.

It’s also up to the adult to understand the child’s personality and disposition and to figure out if a technology is one of the ways the child chooses to interact with the world.

At the same time, cut yourself some slack.

We all know that there are better things to do with children’s time than to plop them in front of a TV, but we also know that child care providers have to make lunch, and parents need time to take a shower.

In situations like that, it is the adult’s job to make the technology time more valuable and interactive by asking questions and connecting a child’s virtual experience on the screen with real-life experiences in her world.

Learning with Technology at Home
Whether you’re giving your child your smart screen phone to entertain them, or it’s your toddlers’ preferred playtime is on an iPad or tablet, here are eight ways to make sure your child’s experiences with technology are educational and fun.

Focus on Active Engagement

Any time your child is engaged with a screen, stop a program, or mute the commercials, and ask engaging questions. What was that character thinking? Why did the main character do that? What would you have done in that situation?

Allow for Repetition DVDs and YouTube videos add an essential ingredient for young minds which is repetition. Let your young child to watch the same video over and over, and ask him what he noticed after each viewing.

Make it Tactile Unlike computers that require a mouse to manipulate objects on the screen, iPads, tablets and smartphones allow kids manipulate “physical” objects with their fingers.

Practice Problem Solving An emerging category of games will force your child to solve problems as they play, potentially building concentration and analytical skills in the process; although the jury is still out on this. There is no clinical data that supports the marketing message of app makers.

Encourage Creation Use technology for creation, not just entertainment. Have your child record a story on your iPod, or sing a song into your video game system. Then, create an entirely new sound using the playback options, slow down and speed up their voice and add different backgrounds and beats until they’ve created something uniquely theirs.

Show Him How to Use It Many computer games have different levels and young children may not know how to move up or change levels. If your child is stuck on one level that’s become too easy, ask if he knows how to move up and help him if he wants more of a challenge.

Ask Why If your child is using an app or game the “wrong” way, always pressing the incorrect button, for example, ask them why. It may be that they like hearing the noise the game makes when they get the question wrong, or they might be stuck and can’t figure out which group of objects match number four.

Focus on Play Young kids should be exploring and playing with technology. This should be considered play, and not a focus on drilling skills.

Ask For Your Own Log-In Often, school programs come with a parent log-in that will allow you to see your child’s progress. If it doesn’t, ask to see the reports that a teacher has access to. Then, check his progress every few weeks. It’s a great way for you and your child to be on the same page about their progress.

Ask About Teacher Training Technology is often implemented in classrooms without appropriate professional development. If your child’s classroom is using a whole-class system, such as Clickers or an Interactive Smartboard, ask how it’s used in class and what training the teacher has had. “As a parent, you want to know if teachers feel well trained and they’re putting [new technologies] to good use.

Find Parent Resources One of the best ways that technology can help your child is by helping you learn more about learning.

Computers, smartphones, and tablets aren’t going away, but with a few tweaks and consideration, you can make your child’s technology-time productive, educational, and fun!

Let’s be honest. Most children can use a mouse, open and close apps, and even search the internet by the time they are three years old.

Once they have the cognitive ability, it’s time to talk with your child about internet safety.

Set clear guidelines and internet safety rules about what types of media are acceptable and carefully support and monitor your child’s technology use.

Tell your child to never share her name, address, or personal information online or on social media.

Talk with your child about what to do if he comes across inappropriate content (close the screen and alert you), and make sure you have a high-quality web filter and security system in place.

Wrapping it Up
Help your child understand that technology is just one of many tools for learning. Download educational games, read books and conduct research. When your child asks a question, conduct an Internet search to find the answer.

What Is the Relevance of Technology?

“Technology in the long-run is irrelevant”. That is what a customer of mine told me when I made a presentation to him about a new product. I had been talking about the product’s features and benefits and listed “state-of-the-art technology” or something to that effect, as one of them. That is when he made his statement. I realized later that he was correct, at least within the context of how I used “Technology” in my presentation. But I began thinking about whether he could be right in other contexts as well.

What is Technology?

Merriam-Webster defines it as:

1

a: the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area: engineering 2 <medical technology>

b: a capability given by the practical application of knowledge <a car’s fuel-saving technology>

2

: a manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods, or knowledge

3

: the specialized aspects of a particular field of endeavor <educational technology>

Wikipedia defines it as:

Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, “art, skill, cunning of hand”; and -λογία, -logia[1]) is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species’ ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology.

Both definitions revolve around the same thing – application and usage.

Technology is an enabler

Many people mistakenly believe it is technology which drives innovation. Yet from the definitions above, that is clearly not the case. It is opportunity which defines innovation and technology which enables innovation. Think of the classic “Build a better mousetrap” example taught in most business schools. You might have the technology to build a better mousetrap, but if you have no mice or the old mousetrap works well, there is no opportunity and then the technology to build a better one becomes irrelevant. On the other hand, if you are overrun with mice then the opportunity exists to innovate a product using your technology.

Another example, one with which I am intimately familiar, are consumer electronics startup companies. I’ve been associated with both those that succeeded and those that failed. Each possessed unique leading edge technologies. The difference was opportunity. Those that failed could not find the opportunity to develop a meaningful innovation using their technology. In fact to survive, these companies had to morph oftentimes into something totally different and if they were lucky they could take advantage of derivatives of their original technology. More often than not, the original technology wound up in the scrap heap. Technology, thus, is an enabler whose ultimate value proposition is to make improvements to our lives. In order to be relevant, it needs to be used to create innovations that are driven by opportunity.

Technology as a competitive advantage?

Many companies list a technology as one of their competitive advantages. Is this valid? In some cases yes, but In most cases no.

Technology develops along two paths – an evolutionary path and a revolutionary path.

A revolutionary technology is one which enables new industries or enables solutions to problems that were previously not possible. Semiconductor technology is a good example. Not only did it spawn new industries and products, but it spawned other revolutionary technologies – transistor technology, integrated circuit technology, microprocessor technology. All which provide many of the products and services we consume today. But is semiconductor technology a competitive advantage? Looking at the number of semiconductor companies that exist today (with new ones forming every day), I’d say not. How about microprocessor technology? Again, no. Lots of microprocessor companies out there. How about quad core microprocessor technology? Not as many companies, but you have Intel, AMD, ARM, and a host of companies building custom quad core processors (Apple, Samsung, Qualcomm, etc). So again, not much of a competitive advantage. Competition from competing technologies and easy access to IP mitigates the perceived competitive advantage of any particular technology. Android vs iOS is a good example of how this works. Both operating systems are derivatives of UNIX. Apple used their technology to introduce iOS and gained an early market advantage. However, Google, utilizing their variant of Unix (a competing technology), caught up relatively quickly. The reasons for this lie not in the underlying technology, but in how the products made possible by those technologies were brought to market (free vs. walled garden, etc.) and the differences in the strategic visions of each company.

Evolutionary technology is one which incrementally builds upon the base revolutionary technology. But by it’s very nature, the incremental change is easier for a competitor to match or leapfrog. Take for example wireless cellphone technology. Company V introduced 4G products prior to Company A and while it may have had a short term advantage, as soon as Company A introduced their 4G products, the advantage due to technology disappeared. The consumer went back to choosing Company A or Company V based on price, service, coverage, whatever, but not based on technology. Thus technology might have been relevant in the short term, but in the long term, became irrelevant.

In today’s world, technologies tend to quickly become commoditized, and within any particular technology lies the seeds of its own death.

Technology’s Relevance

This article was written from the prospective of an end customer. From a developer/designer standpoint things get murkier. The further one is removed from the technology, the less relevant it becomes. To a developer, the technology can look like a product. An enabling product, but a product nonetheless, and thus it is highly relevant. Bose uses a proprietary signal processing technology to enable products that meet a set of market requirements and thus the technology and what it enables is relevant to them. Their customers are more concerned with how it sounds, what’s the price, what’s the quality, etc., and not so much with how it is achieved, thus the technology used is much less relevant to them.

Recently, I was involved in a discussion on Google+ about the new Motorola X phone. A lot of the people on those posts slammed the phone for various reasons – price, locked boot loader, etc. There were also plenty of knocks on the fact that it didn’t have a quad-core processor like the S4 or HTC One which were priced similarly. What they failed to grasp is that whether the manufacturer used 1, 2, 4, or 8 cores in the end makes no difference as long as the phone can deliver a competitive (or even best of class) feature set, functionality, price, and user experience. The iPhone is one of the most successful phones ever produced, and yet it runs on a dual-core processor. It still delivers one of the best user experiences on the market. The features that are enabled by the technology are what are relevant to the consumer, not the technology itself.

The relevance of technology therefore, is as an enabler, not as a product feature or a competitive advantage, or any myriad of other things – an enabler. Looking at the Android operating system, it is an impressive piece of software technology, and yet Google gives it away. Why? Because standalone, it does nothing for Google. Giving it away allows other companies to use their expertise to build products and services which then act as enablers for Google’s products and services. To Google, that’s where the real value is.